Cyber Technology And Insecurity In Africa: A Case Study Of Kenya
Kamary, Joseph Rutto
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The study explores cyber technology and insecurity nexus in Africa. Africa is rapidly developing in information communication technology (ICT) infrastructure and with this growth more people have been linked to the network. However, this advancement has also introduced key trends to the future of cyber security in the continent. The case study of Kenya was chosen because of the similarities in experiences of cyber security challenges. Securitization Theory was chosen as the theoretical framework in understanding the philosophy behind cyber security measures, with a view to finding an explanation why despite cyber security strategies put in place, the cybercrime incidences continue to be experienced in Kenya. The study employed qualitative research method and analyzed data obtained from the field including the analysis of secondary data from various academic scholars, journals, publications and other academic works. The study investigated the cyber security strategies and mechanisms available and how they relate to international cyber security regimes. The respondents who participated in this research included professionals in ICT technical roles, ICT security officers, academia, IT institutions and others. This research explored the measures and strategies applied in Kenya to safeguard the ICT sector against cyber threats. The measures include developing cyber capacity and national institutions to provide a secure and safe cyber environment. The study analyzed how cyber technology has impacted on Kenya’s national security. The research contextualized the concept of cyber security within the Securitization Theory context in order to appreciate cyber technology and its effects to national security. The highlight is on how cyber-attacks in Kenya have become prevalent and its porous nature and complexity. The increase has been associated with the use of computers across the public and private sectors which has attracted criminals to exploit the opportunities available. As outlined in the trends of threats presented, the attacks have become increasingly sophisticated because of the asymmetric nature of operations. This provides a basis through which to evaluate Kenya’s cyber security position. The study therefore concludes that there is a strong correlation between the growth in technology and in-security. The study proves that legal frameworks that provide for cyber security do exist. However, the area of weakness is in implementation due to weak structures and lack of enforcement mechanisms. The country’s cyber position therefore remained weak because of lack of cyber threat awareness amongst many internet users. However, there was a growing acknowledgement of the important role played by institutions through investing in cyber security as a major step towards enhancing cyber threat capacity. Finally, the research also provides recommendations on measures that can achieve sustainable cyber security which must be anchored on cooperation of all stakeholders including internet users and researchers.
University of Nairobi
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