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dc.contributor.authorObiero, Linda, M
dc.description.abstractHorticulture is the third foreign exchange earner and is mostly undertaken by smallholder farmers. Processing of horticultural produce involves the intensive usage of water and energy which subsequently results in the generation of huge amounts of waste. The current trends of sustainability in energy and water use practices among horticultural processing micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) are poorly documented. There is insufficient knowledge on the amount of water and energy utilised including whether there is sustainable use of these resources in the different phases of processing by horticultural MSMEs. This study was conducted to assess sustainable energy and water use practices for resource efficiency by horticultural processing MSMEs in Kenya in order to generate the much-needed information on the amount of energy and water used by the horticultural processing MSMEs to help in improving resource use efficiency thereby leading to sustainable use of energy and water for processing in the horticultural sector as envisaged in SDG 12 as well as establishing the level of knowledge of MSMEs. The current study employed cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs with mixed methods approaches. Additionally, a reconnaissance study was done to test the practicability of the objectives and 122 MSMEs were surveyed. Purposive sampling was used to select a representative sample size of 39 MSMEs. Data was gathered using partially-structured questionnaires, interviews along with observations. Quantitative data was displayed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, standard deviation and means. Qualitative data on the other hand was analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that the MSMEs had a high level of knowledge, however this did not motivate them to adopt the environmental practices geared at resource efficiency. The high level of knowledge could be attributed to the training that had been held on sustainable consumption and production (SCP). The MSMEs needed additional motivation to adopt sustainable practices aimed at resource use efficiency. A non-significant relationship was established between attitude and practice. Multiple linear regression indicates age affects knowledge, attitude and practices (R2=0.272, F=4.238, P=0.012). An increase in age is associated with an improvement in knowledge, attitude and practices on energy and water use for processing. The other variables which are type of MSME, education level, frequency of processing and gender did not have a significant effect on knowledge, attitude and practices of the MSMEs. There is weak enforcement of energy and water use efficiency measures. In addition, more emphasis has been placed on energy management than on water management. Green training had a beneficial influence on the implementation of energy and water efficiency measures by the MSMEs. However, the focus of the MSMEs has been on the implementation of short-term measures on energy and water use efficiency. About the quantification of energy used for horticultural processing, the results indicate that in the processing plants where there is energy intensive processing for instance pasteurization processes, there is intensive consumption of energy compared to plants that only package the produce. Similarly, on quantification of water for horticultural processing, it was noted that there was minimal water use in plants where there was minimal processing and packaging of produce compared to plants where there was washing and further processing of produce. Sub-metering was largely lacking thus hampering the collection of detailed and specific data that would help the MSMEs identify hotspots of energy and water consumed. The study recommends the use of incentives such as subsidies and rebates to encourage MSMEs to adopt practices aimed at energy and water use efficiency, additional training is also needed to enhance awareness of MSMEs on the need for energy and water use efficiency. There is also a need for enforcement of energy and water efficiency measures by the relevant government entities.en_US
dc.publisherUniversity of Nairobien_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States*
dc.subjectSustainable Energy and Water Use for Horticultural Processing by Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenyaen_US
dc.titleSustainable Energy and Water Use for Horticultural Processing by Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenyaen_US

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