Prospects of using tick parasitoids (Insecta) for tick management in Africa
Kaaya Godwin P.
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Since the first report of tick parasitoids by Howard (1907), sevens pecies belonging to the genus Ixodiphagus have been described. Apart from a few parasitoid releases in the USA and Europe in the first third of the century, there has not been any major attempt to control ticks by means of parasitoids in Africa. In Africa Ixodiphagus hookeri (Howard) (Hymenoptera) has been reported from South Africa, Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, Cote d'Ivoire, and Mozambique. A second species, I. theilerae (Fiedler), has only been reported from Namibia, South Africa and Egypt. However, parasitoid releases have not been conducted anywhere on the continent classically or inundatively. Before parasitoids can be used for tick management in Africa, it is necessary to establish their geographical distribution, the identity of existing species, conduct studies on their biology, development in ticks, flight range, dispersal capacity and the cost effectiveness of their use. For I. hookeri, considerable information exists for most of these parameters. Further work should, however, be done on the geographical distribution of the parasitoids on the continent, cost effectiveness and sustainability of their use in tick control. Investigations should be carried out on the effect of acaricides on parasitoids. It is also necessary to establish whether the use of parasitoids in an integrated control program would be compatible with other chemical free interventions currently being developed against ticks, such as fungi, botanicals, and anti-tick vaccine.
CitationInternational Journal of Acarology Volume 23, Issue 3, 1997
University of Nairobi.School of Biological Sciences
SubjectIxodiphagus hookeri (Howard)
I. theilerae (Fiedler)
Amblyomma variegatum (Fab.)
Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Neumann)