Bacteriuria in a cohort of predominantly HIV-1 seropositive female commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya
C. Mwachari, C.
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Although significant bacteriuria and urinary tract infection are more common in immunocompetent women than men, studies linking HIV immunosuppression with an increased risk of developing urinary infection have so far only been carried out in men. We therefore examined the relationship between bacteriuria and HIV status and CD4+cell count in a relatively homogenous cohort of female commercial sex workers (CSW) attending a community clinic in Nairobi. Two hundred and twenty-two women were enroled, and grouped according to HIV status and CD4 count. Group 1 were HIV seronegative (n = 52); Group 2 were HIV seropositive with CD4 + counts above 500 × 106/1 (n = 51); Group 3 were HIV seropositive with CD4 + counts between 201 and 500 × 106/1 (n = 67); Group 4 were HIV seropositive with CD4 + counts below 200 × 106/1 (n = 52). Clinical signs and symptoms were noted and mid-stream specimens of urine obtained for culture and sensitivity. Overall 23% (50/222) had significant bacteriuria. The rates in each group respectively were 25%, 29%, 19% and 23% and there was no significant association between bacteriuria and HIV status; or between bacteriuria and level of immunosuppression as indicated by CD4 + count. Overall 19% (30/222) of women had symptoms (frequency; dysuria; loin pain; smelly urine) or signs (fever; loin tenderness) compatible with urinary tract infection. However there was no significant association between symptoms or signs of infection and bacteriuria or HIV status. A typical range of pathogens, predominantly Enterobacteriaceae, were isolated and there were high rates of resistance to commonly used antimicrobials as well as 10% resistance to ciprofloxacin. Although high rates of significant bacteriuria can occur in highly sexually-active women, this appears unrelated to HIV infection or the level of HIV-related immunosuppression and is generally asymptomatic or clinically indistinct.
CitationJournal of Infection
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, KenyaKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, KenyaPublic Health Laboratory Services, Oxford, U.K.Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, U.K