Indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms among pastoralist communities in the Karamoja cluster - a case study of the Turkana
Indigenous Conflict Resolution Mechanisms (ICRM) have been used among pastoralists for many decades. Turkana community provided a good case study as the community has embraced used And still use ICRM to prevent, manage and resolve intra- and inter-community conflicts. The main purpose of this study was do a critical analysis of ICRM to determine the missing link and propose recommendations that would contribute to the strengthening of the mechanisms to be able to meet the new developments, trends, dynamics and challenges of the twenty first century. This was addressed by focusing on the study objectives thus; to establish the perspectives of indigenous conflict resolution techniques among pastoralists, to examine the forms and application of indigenous conflict resolution techniques among pastoralists, and to determine the strengths and challenges of indigenous conflict resolution techniques among the pastoralists. This study covered convectional and ICRM at the global, regional and local level. The research findings were based on comprehensive literature review got from extensive reports, academic writings, published books, and journals. These were supplemented by key informant interviews, focused group discussions and questionnaires. The research design was descriptive survey. Random sampling was done and different groups of the population were adequately represented. The target population was two hundred and fifty personnel involved in conflict management and peace building. A sample of seventy four respondents was randomly picked. The categories of people interviewed included government administrators, religious leaders, staff from Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and civil society groups, local leaders, women and youth. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics mean scores and standard deviations, frequencies distributions and percentages. Findings are presented by use of tables and figures for clarity. Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations were drawn from the study findings. The study is important as it will contribute to the generation of knowledge with regards to ICRM. The study established that ICRM are widely applied among pastoralist communities and they have a positive perception about it and the people highly respect ICRM. There are various forms of ICRM but the most preferred were the public forums led by the elders. The study established that the strengths of ICRM outweigh the challenges and ICRM has been successfully used among the Turkanas with improved peace within the community and across the border. Decline in raids has also been observed. From the study findings it is recommended that to be able to overcome the current conflict trends, dynamics, and challenges and be more effective the government needs to strengthen the implementation process by offering ICRM formal recognition and linking it with formal police, courts and various government agencies, incorporate the best practices of ICRM and with the modern mechanisms, involve all stakeholders especially women and youth, and conduct conflict education and training to elders to enable them understand modern methods of arbitration, democratic governance and universally accepted human rights.