A qualitative assessment of the gendered effects of contagious bovine pleuroneumonia (cbpp) outbreaks and control among the somali pastoralists of ijara sub-county, garissa county, northeastern kenya
Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is considered a serious threat to women and men cattle keepers. The disease has serious implications on the livelihoods of women and men, household food security which is usually a woman‟s domain, control costs incurred by women and men and the social welfare of women and men. Owing to the gender relations in the prevailing culture, women and men are affected differently by CBPP outbreaks. Vaccine technology adoption can be motivated in both women and men by occurrence of frequent outbreaks. Eradication of CBPP can improve the well-being of women and men, though the positive effects are often skewed in favour of men owing to the existing gender norms. The study reported here responds to three objectives: to examine the gendered effects of CBPP outbreaks, to determine the gendered responses in relation to CBPP control and to establish the anticipated gendered effects of eradicating CBPP. The study adopted a crosssectional exploratory research design, and data was collected in six sub-locations from Ijara sub-county. Data was obtained through key informants interviews and they provided detailed information on the effects of CBPP outbreaks and its control strategies. Focus group discussions were held with a total number of 127 women and men discussants to obtain information on the effects of CBPP outbreaks on women and men, the strategies employed by women and men to control CBPP outbreaks and the anticipated positive and negative effects of eradicating CBPP according to women and men. The findings show that women and men are both affected by CBPP outbreaks however the effects are gendered owing to gender norms and relations. Vaccination, treatment, quarantine and prayers are strategies employed by women and men to control CBPP. Vaccination hypothetical eradication scenario of CBP, the relationship and interactions of women and men may be affected positively or negatively. The study concludes that the effects of CBPP outbreaks are gendered, women and men employ similar strategies in controlling CBPP but face different challenges in adopting those strategies and eradication of CBPP is linked to affluence and happiness and on the other hand it is also associated with a series of failed marriages. This study recommends that more studies on livestock diseases and vaccines ought to be engendered because there is need to identify the gendered effects of livestock disease outbreaks to enhance feasible ways of closing the gender impact gap. Women and men face different barriers in adopting livestock vaccines and hence there is need to employ effective strategies to close these barriers and ensure equitable adoption of livestock vaccines by women and men. More analysis on the gender differentials should be conducted on the preferences of women and men to enhance equitable benefits for women and men from vaccination and vaccine adoption. Eradication of a disease may either have positive or negative effects on the relationships and interactions of women and men hence, there is need to ensure gender-responsive eradication strategies that will enhance fair and equal outcomes for women and men.