Early HIV Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Five Cities in the United States
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We tested blood samples from men who have sex with men (MSM) to detect early HIV infection. Early HIV included both acute (infected past 30 days) and recent (estimated recency past 240 days). Acute infections were defined as screen immunoassay (IA) negative/NAAT-positive or IA-positive/Multispot-negative/NAAT-positive. Recent infections were defined as avidity index cutoff <30 % on an avidity-based IA and, (1) not reporting antiretroviral therapy use or, (2) HIV RNA >150 copies/mL. Of 937 samples, 26 % (244) were HIV-infected and of these 5 % (12) were early. Of early infections, 2 were acute and 10 recent; most (8/12) were among black MSM. Early infection was associated with last partner of black race [adjusted relative risk (ARR) = 4.6, confidence intervals (CI) 1.2–17.3], receptive anal sex at last sex (ARR = 4.3, CI 1.2–15.0), and daily Internet use to meet partners/friends (ARR = 3.3, CI 1.1–9.7). Expanding prevention and treatment for black MSM will be necessary for reducing incidence in the United States.