Influence Of Road Infrastructure Interventions On Implementation Of Pedestrian Safety Rules In The City Of Kisumu, Kenya
Road infrastructure interventions exist yet implementation of pedestrian safety rules has remained a challenge globally, in Africa and Kenya.The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of road infrastructure interventions and attitude of pedestrians on implementation of pedestrian safety rules in the City of Kisumu, Kenya. The objectives were to establish the extent to which public education on road safety influences implementation of pedestrian safety rules, examine how road engineering designs influence implementation of pedestrian safety rules, assess the extent to which enforcement of traffic laws influence implementation of pedestrian safety rules, determine how pedestrian demographic factors influence implementation of pedestrian safety rules,establish the extent to which the combined road infrastructure interventions influence implementation of pedestrian safety rules and to examine the moderating influence of attitude of pedestrians on the relationship between road infrastructure interventions and implementation of pedestrian safety rules in the City of Kisumu. It was hypothesized that road infrastructure interventions and attitude of pedestrians influenced implementation of pedestrian safety rules at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted the iRAP model on which the safe systems approach theory was anchored. The study applied mixed methods approach and pragmatism as the research philosophy and Ex Post Facto as the research design. The mixed methods approach applied quantitative and qualitative data complementarily. From a universe population of 409,928 residents of the City of Kisumu, a target population of pedestrians and drivers assumed to have used the sampled urban roads was drawn. A sample size of 384 was found ideal for this target population as per Fischer, Watson‟s formulae and Krejcie and Morgan‟s table of determining sample size. The sampling entailed both probability and non-probability procedures where simple random sampling, cluster random sampling, stratified random sampling and convenience and purposive sampling techniques were used.The data collection instruments for quantitative data included the questionnaires while the interview guide, observation checklist and document analysis captured qualitative data to complement the questionnaire and enable triangulation ofthe instruments.A pilot study was conducted on two urban roads randomly selected from the 110 urban roads.The reliability of the instruments was tested using Cronbach Alpha. Quantitative data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics and qualitative data analysis using content analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows version 20 was used. Statistical tools of analysis for descriptive statistics captured measures of central tendency such as arithmetic mean, standard deviation presented in tables in frequencies and percentages.Inferential statistics both parametric and non-parametric, tested hypothesis through Pearson‟s Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis for relationship and association between two independent variables on a dependent variable as appropriate. The study found a statistically significant relationship between public education p<0.013, enforcement of traffic laws p<0.000, pedestrian demographic factors p<0.000 and attitude of pedestrians<0.000and combined interventions, enforcement of traffic laws and pedestrian demographic factors each statistically significant at p=0.000 thus the null hypothesis was rejected at (p<0.05). Road engineering designs p=0.186and combined regression found public education p=0.313 and road engineering design p=0.102 not statistically significant .Attitude of pedestrians moderated the relationship between enforcement of traffic laws and implementation at p=0.019.The study concludes that public education, enforcement of traffic laws, pedestrian demographic factors and attitude of pedestrians influence implementation of pedestrian safety rules.Effective implementation of pedestrian safety rules to ideally benefit policy makers , the government and all road users specifically pedestrians. The study recommends an integrated policy on road infrastructure interventions to enhance implementation of pedestrian safety rules based on safe system approach theory.Further research should focus on responsible sharing of the road space.
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