Factors influencing implementation of water and sanitation projects in Kaiti sub -county, Makueni County, Kenya
Globally, a number of project implementation continue to fall below their targets when it comes to water and sanitation. A lot of invested funds in these projects have gone down the drain with no tangible outcomes or results. The purpose of the study was to determine the factors that influence implementation of water and sanitation projects in Kaiti sub-county, Makueni County. The study was guided by the following objectives; To determine the influence of resource allocation, structural facilities, stakeholder involvement, monitoring and evaluation and project management competence on implementation of water and sanitation projects in Kaiti sub-county, Makueni County. The study was grounded on human capital theory, stakeholder theory and Resource based theory. The target population for this study composed of the county representatives, community representatives and project management committee members. A sample size of 135 for the study with the population of 208 was obtained using Morgan and Krejcie (1970) model. Primary data was obtained using self-administered questionnaires. The drop and pick method were preferred for questionnaire administration so as to give respondents enough time to give well thought out responses. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 25.0). All the questionnaires received was referenced and items in the questionnaire was coded to facilitate data entry. After data cleaning which entailed checking for errors in entry, descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, mean score and standard deviation was estimated for all the quantitative variables and information presented inform of tables. Inferential data analysis was done using multiple regression analysis. The study found that the source of funds where mostly emanates from either county and national government or NGOs have a great influence on the execution of water and sanitation projects, that accessibility to electricity as well as availability of pipes or pumps and circulation systems lead to successful implementation of water and sanitation projects in Kaiti Sub-County and that in Kaiti Sub-County successful implementation of water and sanitation projects was attributed to stakeholders’ level of contribution. The study concluded that resource allocation had the greatest effect on implementation of water and sanitation projects in Kaiti sub-county, Makueni County followed by project management competence then stakeholder involvement, then monitoring and evaluation while structural facilities had the least effect on implementation of water and sanitation projects in Kaiti sub-county, Makueni County. The study recommends that the government institute a participatory regulatory framework that encompasses all stakeholders in the industry. Further, county project policies should be integrated with broader, people-focused urban poverty reduction policies that deal with the varied aspects of poverty, including employment and incomes, shelter, food, health, education and access to basic urban infrastructure and services. Training should be encouraged in all organizations so as provide better performance and also keep the staff up to date. Toilet project implementers should also consider the resident's situation when deciding on the charges for using the toilets.