Pathophysiological effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica) derivatives to Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, the tick vector for Theileriosis (East Coast Fever)
Kaaya, Godwin P
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Theeffects of 2 Neem derivatives, Neem oil (NO) and Neem Seed Powder (NSP),on various physiological parameters of the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus,the vector for Theileria parva. Neem oil was applied on rabbit ears using a fine brush,whereas NSP was mixed with rabbit pellets at various concentrations and fed on goats on which various instars of the tick were allowed to feed. Tick larvae smeared with Neem oil (NO) while attached to rabbit ears exhibited significant mortalities.The 10% NOinduced a mortality of 40% compared to less than 1% observed in Peanut oil (PO) control.Furthermore,engorgement weights were significantly reduced (0.1mg NOvs 4mg PO). Theircorresponding moulting percentages were 1 and 71%in NO and PO, respectively. Adult female ticks exhibited reduced engorgement weightsand egg mass. Larvae able to attach on goats maintained on 100% NSPwere only 11% comparedto66% forcontrolgoats fed on rabbit pellets(RP). The corresponding nymphal attachments were 24%NSPand 79%RP. The number and weights of eggs produced by adult ticks fed on goats maintained on NSPalso dropped significantly. The hatchability of eggs produced by these ticks was also significantly reduced.
University of Nairobi