Pathological Conditions And Associated Financial Losses For Organ Condemnations In Cattle Slaughtered In Siaya County, Kenya
Achollah, Argwings Millan
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Cattle production is an important economic activity in Kenya, but not fully maximized due to losses from disease conditions, some causing condemnation of organs at slaughter. To date, no studies have documented the conditions and quantified the associated financial losses in Siaya County, Kenya. This study aimed at documenting organ condemnations in cattle in slaughterhouses in the county, establish causes for the respective condemnations in selected slaughterhouses and to estimate the associated financial losses. The study was carried out in two phases involving a retrospective desk study (from 2013-2017), followed by a cross-sectional study (from 5th June 2018 - 4th July 2018). Data from slaughterhouse records were retrieved, causes for condemnation documented and monetary values of the condemned organs estimated in the retrospective study. The cross-sectional study involved post-mortem examination of organs in 3 selected slaughterhouses (Kaumara, Siaya, and Ugunja), collection of condemned organs and identification of the respective causes of the condemnations through pathological, parasitological and bacteriological laboratory techniques. Weights of condemned organs were measured and using their prevailing market prices, the respective financial loss was estimated. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data, while differences in means of organ condemnations over the years and for the selected slaughterhouses were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test to determine significance. Retrospective desk study results showed that out of 101,852 cattle slaughtered between 2013 to 2017, 27,888 (27.4%) organs were condemned mainly due to parasitic conditions 12,172 (12%), inflammatory conditions 8,084 (8%) and circulatory disturbances 3,060 (3%). The total direct financial losses incurred during the 5-year period was Kenya shillings (KShs.) 38,696,072 (US$ 383,129.40), with a mean annual loss of KShs. 7,739,214.40 (US$ 76,625.90). In the cross-sectional study, 75 out of 112 (67%) cattle slaughtered xxii had one or more organs condemned and 194 samples were collected for laboratory analyses. On characterization, parasitic infestations [hepatic fasciolosis 58 (51.8%), pimply guts/ Oesophagostomiasis 28 (25%) and hepatic hydatidosis 1 (0.9%)], were the major causes. Others were masseter muscle abscess by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection 1 (0.9%), splenomegaly [from congestion 1 (0.9%) and hemosiderosis 1 (0.9%)] and pulmonary blood aspiration from lack of stunning 2 (1.8%). Fasciola gigantica were identified morphologically as the cause of hepatic fasciolosis, while histopathological examination of 1 (0.9%) liver confirmed the presence of hydatid cysts. Oesophagostomum species larvae were recovered from 2 (25%) pimply gut nodules out of 8 suspected intestinal lesions digested in acid pepsin, while histopathological examination of 20 pimply gut nodules revealed the larval parts in 5 (25%) of them. As a result of these condemnations, a total of KShs. 94,469 (US$ 935) losses were incurred. There were no statistically significant differences (p=0.99) in condemnation of organs over the years and also for the three slaughterhouses. In conclusion, organs were condemned mainly due to parasitic and inflammatory conditions and laboratory methods if used, would be helpful in ascertaining the causes. Many organs were condemned at slaughter due to controllable parasitic, bacterial and conditions associated with poor slaughtering techniques; causing wastage of edible organs and heavy economic losses for the livestock industry. The occurrence of hepatic fasciolosis and hydatidosis suggested a possible transmission of the zoonotic agents to humans. The study recommends dissemination of the findings to all stakeholders and enhanced sensitization to farmers on measures of controlling the conditions at farm level and sensitization of slaughter workers on proper slaughter techniques to reduce losses in slaughterhouses. Further research is needed, employing more advanced methods like molecular techniques to determine a possible transmission of zoonotic diseases including hydatidosis and fasciolosis to humans.
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