Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial.
Ndavi, Patrick M.
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Background Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is a placental to new-born transfusion strategy recommended by obstetric and gynaecological societies. Though not widely adopted, umbilical cord milking (UCM) may achieve faster transfusion when DCC cannot be performed such as when a neonate requires resuscitation. Methods Pragmatic, two-arm, randomized clinical trial in which consenting women in spontaneous labour or provider-initiated delivery at 28 to less than 37 weeks at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were enrolled. At delivery, stable preterm infants were randomized to UCM (4 times) or DCC (60 seconds). Neonatal samples were collected for analysis at 24 hours after delivery. Maternal primary PPH (within 24 hours) and neonatal jaundice (within 1 week) were evaluated clinically. The primary outcome was the mean neonatal haemoglobin level at 24 hours after birth. Modified Intention to treat analysis was used for all outcomes. P-value was significant at p<0.05. Results Between March 2018 to March 2019, 344 pregnant women underwent screening, and 280 eligible participants were randomized when delivery was imminent. The intervention was not performed on 19 ineligible neonates. Of the remaining 260 neonates, 133 underwent UCM while 128 underwent DCC. Maternal and neonatal baseline characteristics were similar. The mean neonatal haemoglobin (17.1 vs 17.5 grams per decilitre, p = 0.191), haematocrit (49.6% vs 50.3%, p = 0.362), anaemia (9.8% vs 11.7%, p = 0.627), maternal PPH (2.3% vs 3.1%, p = 0.719) were similar between UCM and DCC respectfully. However, neonatal polycythaemia (2.3% vs 8.6%, p = 0.024) and neonatal jaundice (6.8% vs 15.6%, p = 0.024) were statistically significantly lower in UCM compared to DCC. Conclusion UCM compared to DCC for preterm neonates resulted in similar outcomes for neonatal haemoglobin, haematocrit, anaemia and maternal primary PPH and a lower proportion of neonatal polycythaemia and clinical jaundice. UCM offers a comparable method of placental transfusion compared to DCC and may be considered as an alternative to DCC in preterm neonates at 28 to <37 weeks’ gestation.
University of Nairobi
RightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States
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