Insecticide resistance status of indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in a highland and lowland site in Western Kenya
Owuor, Kevin O
Machani, Maxwell G
Mukabana, Wolfgang R
Munga, Stephen O
Afrane, Yaw A
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Background: Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) represent powerful tools for controlling malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. The success of these interventions relies on their capability to inhibit indoor feeding and resting of malaria mosquitoes. This study sought to understand the interaction of insecticide resistance with indoor and outdoor resting behavioral responses of malaria vectors from Western Kenya. Methods: The status of insecticide resistance among indoor and outdoor resting anopheline mosquitoes was compared in Anopheles mosquitoes collected from Kisumu and Bungoma counties in Western Kenya. The level and intensity of resistance were measured using WHO-tube and CDC-bottle bioassays, respectively. The synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was used to determine if metabolic activity (monooxygenase enzymes) explained the resistance observed. The mutations at the voltage-gated sodium channel (Vgsc) gene and Ace 1 gene were characterized using PCR methods. Microplate assays were used to measure levels of detoxification enzymes if present. Results: A total of 1094 samples were discriminated within Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 289 within An. funestus s.l. In Kisian (Kisumu county), the dominant species was Anopheles arabiensis 75.2% (391/520) while in Kimaeti (Bungoma county) collections the dominant sibling species was Anopheles gambiae s.s 96.5% (554/574). The An. funestus s.l samples analysed were all An. funestus s.s from both sites. Pyrethroid resistance of An.gambiae s.l F1 progeny was observed in all sites. Lower mortality was observed against deltamethrin for the progeny of indoor resting mosquitoes compared to outdoor resting mosquitoes (Mortality rate: 37% vs 51%, P = 0.044). The intensity assays showed moderate-intensity resistance to deltamethrin in the progeny of mosquitoes collected from indoors and outdoors in both study sites. In Kisian, the frequency of vgsc-L1014S and vgsc-L1014F mutation was 0.14 and 0.19 respectively in indoor resting malaria mosquitoes while those of the outdoor resting mosquitoes were 0.12 and 0.12 respectively. The ace 1 mutation was present in higher frequency in the F1 of mosquitoes resting indoors (0.23) compared to those of mosquitoes resting outdoors (0.12). In Kimaeti, the frequencies of vgsc-L1014S and vgsc-L1014F were 0.75 and 0.05 respectively for the F1 of mosquitoes collected indoors whereas those of outdoor resting ones were 0.67 and 0.03 respectively. The ace 1 G119S mutation was present in progeny of mosquitoes from Kimaeti resting indoors (0.05) whereas it was absent in those resting outdoors. Monooxygenase activity was elevated by 1.83 folds in Kisian and by 1.33 folds in Kimaeti for mosquitoes resting indoors than those resting outdoors respectively. Conclusion: The study recorded high phenotypic, metabolic and genotypic insecticide resistance in indoor resting populations of malaria vectors compared to their outdoor resting counterparts. The indication of moderate resistance intensity for the indoor resting mosquitoes is alarming as it could have an operational impact on the efficacy of the existing pyrethroid based vector control tools. The use of synergist (PBO) in LLINs may be a better alternative for widespread use in these regions recording high insecticide resistance.
CitationOwuor KO, Machani MG, Mukabana WR, Munga SO, Yan G, Ochomo E, Afrane YA. Insecticide resistance status of indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in a highland and lowland site in Western Kenya. PLoS One. 2021 Mar 1;16(3):e0240771. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240771. PMID: 33647049; PMCID: PMC7920366.
University of Nairobi
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