An analysis of factors influencing the pedagogical integration of ICT in public secondary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya
This research was undertaken to investigate and analyze factors influencing the pedagogical integration of Information Communications Technology (ICT) in public secondary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. The data was collected by means of questionnaires administered to 240 students, 24 teachers and 8 principals. Interviews and observations were also done in the eight schools. The objectives of the study were; to compare the extent of ICT integration for pedagogy in the selected secondary schools in Nairobi, to assess the attitudes students and teachers towards the use of ICT equipments for teaching learning purposes, to analyze the availability of ICT facilities for use in teaching/learning and administration and to assess the internet connectivity for pedagogical use in the selected schools. The findings indicated that there is lack of sufficient ICT equipment/facilities hence cannot match the high number of students in the schools. This was contributed by lack of enough funds to buy updated software's and digital teaching materials. Seven out of eight schools surveyed lack internet connectivity, which they attribute to the high cost associated with internet connection. Most of the teachers have a positive attitude towards ICT use. They are involved in professional development activities including after school computer classes/sessions, in-service training courses and online training courses. However, majority of the teachers (66.7%) do not use computers for teaching due to too much lessons per week and restrictions by the administration on the use of computers. Most of the students also prefer using ICT for learning purposes. Majority of the students mentioned that they lack teachers trained in ICT, have few ICT lessons given in the schools and that the computer studies is less compulsory hence making the less interested students to avoid the lessons. From the study, most students and teachers rarely use internet to obtain learning resources due to lack of internet connection in the schools. Only in 2 schools, 61-80% of students use internet and only in one school, more than 60% of the teachers was reported to be using internet. Most students spend a lot of time to network with friends in the face book website. Most of the staff members lack computer skills. Teachers lamented on limited access to the available computers and restricted internet usage. In addition, use of ICT demanded a lot of time, for instance making slides for teaching, which they explained could slow down syllabus coverage. Some teachers however were not well versed with computer usage for teaching purposes, for instance preparing power point slides. Computers are being utilized for planning, preparation and administration. According to the administrators, each of the schools had computers and at least one computer was available for use. The study recommends revision of rigid school ICT policies that restrict teachers and students from maximizing the use of ICT in pedagogy; providing in-service training to all teachers on ICT skills, employment of more computer teachers and ICT technicians, government to increase funding to 'computer for schools programs' and that policy makers should incorporate and propagate ICT use in the curriculum and to emphasize the importance of ICT in schools.
University of Nairobi, Kenya