Influence of girl child educational development on boy's enrolment in public mixed secondary schools in Kisumu East district, Kenya
This research sought to study the influence of girl child educational development on boys' enrollment in public mixed secondary schools in Kisumu East District. Most Commonwealth countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia still have significant gaps achieving gender parity in secondary enrollment rates. In South Africa, more girls are enrolled in secondary schools than boys. In Kenya's central province, statistics from the ministry of education indicate that more girls enroll into secondary schools than boys. Trends indicate that since 2003, there has been an increase in the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary schools in Kisumu municipality.ﾷ According to the statistics from the District Education Office, Kisumu East, and student enrollment by gender in mixed day secondary schools was 42.78% in 2004,43.39% in 2005 and 44.11 % for girls indicating an increasing trend, while that of boys was 57.21% in 2004, 56.41% in 2005 and 55.88% in 2006 indicating a decreasing trend. The 4 components of girl child educational development were; women advocacy in education, affirmative actions in education, gender mainstreaming in education and gender parity in education. The objectives of study were to examine the influence of women advocacy in education, affirmative actions in education, gender mainstreaming in education and gender parity in education as components of girl child educational development on the boys' enrollment in public mixed secondary schools in Kisumu east district. Literature reviewed discussed objectives of this study in relation to enrollment and has critically reviewed previous research articles on similar or related topics The major advocacies on women education were highlighted. The various affirmative actions were also reviewed and their influence on the boys' enrollment established. The various ways of mainstreaming gender in educations included curriculum, gender awareness training and education materials. The approaches used to attain gender parity in education included equity of access, equality in learning process and education outcomes. This study used descriptive survey design. The study collected both qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data was collected through the unstructured sections of the questionnaire while the quantitative data through the structured sections. Piloting of the study was carried out in Obambo Mixed secondary school in Kisumu West district to ensure validity and reliability of questionnaire. The study targeted all the form one students and head teachers in 28 public mixed secondary schools. This study used simple random, stratified random and purposive sampling techniques. 8 schools were sampled using simple random techniques. 10 boys and 9 girls were sampled through stratified random sampling from each school visited. 8 Head teachers were sampled through purposive technique. Content analysis was employed to analyze qualitative data while quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Heavy presence of women advocacy was envisaged with (95%) of the female students acknowledging them. (89%) and (67%) of female and male students benefited from free primary education respectively. with only of the male students benefiting. Re-admission policies targeted female more than male students. The curriculum was biased towards female students. (95%) of the female students had received gender awareness trainings with no such trainings for male students. The various strategies used to attain gender parity in education were equity of access, equality in learning process and equality of education outcomes. Most female students were enrolled with lower marks compared to their male counterparts, The study concluded that the various strategies of women advocacy, affirmative actions, gender mainstreaming and gender parity in education negatively influence boys' enrollment. The study recommended that the government and NOOs should take part in advocating for boys education. A uniform grading system and scholarships should be availed for boys.
University of Nairobi, Kenya