Hemodialysis vascular accesses in patients on chronic hemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya.
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INTRODUCTION: The objective of our study was to document the level of preparedness for renal replacement therapy assessed by incident hemodialysis vascular access and the access at least 3 months after initiation of hemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. METHODS: Between June and July 2018, we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study on the preparedness for hemodialysis by patients who were on chronic hemodialysis in the Kenyatta National Hospital Renal Department. Sociodemographic, medical history, duration of follow-up, and state of preparedness parameters were obtained through interview and entered into the questionnaire. The data were entered in preprogrammed format in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 for analyses. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients were enrolled. Males were 50% (41). The mean age was 45.39 ± 15.96 years but females were 5 years younger than their male counterparts. About 85.4% of the patients were drawn from the hypertension and diabetes clinics, and the mean, mode, and median of the duration of follow-up were 41, 0, and 0 months, respectively, in these clinics. Almost three in every four patients (74.4%) were initiated on hemodialysis as emergency (p value < 0.001). About 80% were initiated hemodialysis via acute catheters placed in the jugular and subclavian veins (p value < 0.001). At least 3 months later, 40% still had acute catheters on the same veins (p value < 0.001). Acute venous catheters in the femoral veins were in 9.2% at initiation and 6.6% of the patients at least 3 months later. Less than 2% of the patients had arteriovenous fistulae at initiation, which rose to 14.5% in 3 months. Tunneled catheters were placed in 11.8% initially and at least 3 months, were almost in 40% of the patients. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our young hemodialysis population mainly drawn from hypertension and diabetes clinic requires more input in hemodialysis vascular access planning. Focused individualized follow-up and early referrals to nephrologists are required. Uptake of arteriovenous grafts for hemodialysis might reduce the prevalence of hemodialysis catheters. As it is, this population is threatened with iterative vascular accesses complications as well as real danger of exhaustion of their vascular capital. There is real danger of increase in mortality from access complications.
CitationJ Vasc Access. 2019 May 6
End-stage renal disease
- Faculty of Health Sciences (FHS)