The burden of unrecognised chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes at a county hospital clinic in Kenya : implications to care and need for screening
Otieno, Frederick. C. F
Ogola, E. N.
Kimando, M. W.
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Background Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes enhances the cardiovascular risk profiles and disease, and is a strong predictor of progression to end-stage kidney disease. Early diagnosis is encouraged for referral to specialist kidney care to initiate active management that would optimize outcomes including forestalling progression to end-stage kidney disease. This study was conducted in a regional referral public health facility in Central Kenya with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes. It was aimed at finding out the burden of undiagnosed chronic kidney disease in their clinic of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes who dwell mainly in the rural area. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the out-patient of Nyeri County hospital. A total of 385 patients were enrolled over 5 months. Informed consent was obtained and clinical evaluation was done, a spot sample of urine obtained for albuminuria and venous blood drawn for HbA1c, Lipids and serum creatinine. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockroft-Gault equation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was classified on KDIGO scale. Albuminuria was reported as either positive or negative. Descriptive statistics for data summary and regression analysis were employed on SPSS v23. Results A total of 385 participants were included in the study, 252 (65.5%) were females. There were 39.0% (95%CI 34.3–44.2) patients in CKD/KDIGO stages 3, 4 and 5 and 32.7% (95%CI, 27.8–37.4) had Albuminuria. The risk factors that were significantly associated with chronic kidney disease/KDIGO stages 3, 4 and 5 were: age > 50 years, long duration with diabetes > 5 years and hypertension. Employment and paradoxically, obesity reduced the odds of having CKD, probably as markers of better socio-economic status. Conclusion Unrecognized CKD of KDIGO stages 3,4 and 5 occurred in over 30 % of the study patients. The risk factors of hypertension, age above 50, long duration of diabetes should help identify those at high risk of developing CKD, for screening and linkage to care. They are at high risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease and cardiovascular events. The imperative of screening for chronic kidney disease is availing care in publicly-funded hospitals.
CitationOtieno, F. C. F., Ogola, E. N., Kimando, M. W., & Mutai, K. (2020). The burden of unrecognised chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes at a county hospital clinic in Kenya: Implications to care and need for screening. BMC Nephrology, 21(1), 73