The detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in maternal plasma is associated with mortality in HIV-1 infected women and their infants
Slyker, Jennifer A.
Lohman-Payne, Barbara L.
Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.
Emery, Vincent C.
John-Stewart, Grace C.
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Objective—Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in healthy neonates and individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The objective of this study was to determine whether the detection of CMV DNA (CMV DNAemia) in maternal plasma was associated with mortality in HIV-1 infected women or their infants. Methods—A longitudinal study was designed to examine the relationship between maternal CMV DNAemia and maternal-infant mortality during two years postpartum. Sixty-four HIV-1 infected women and their infants were studied. CMV DNA loads were quantified in plasma from the mothers near the time of delivery. Baseline maternal CD4 counts, CD4%, HIV-1 RNA, and CMV DNAemia were evaluated as covariates of subsequent maternal or infant mortality in univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Results—CMV DNA was detected in 11/64 (17%) of the HIV-1 infected women. HIV-1 and CMV viral load were strongly correlated in CMV DNAemic women (ρ=0.84, p=0.001). Detection of CMV DNAemia was associated with decreased maternal survival at 24 months postpartum (log-rank p=0.006). Additionally, HIV-1 infected infants born to CMV DNAemic women had a 4-fold increased risk of mortality during 24 months of follow-up. Maternal CMV DNAemia remained a significant risk factor for mortality in HIV-1 infected infants after adjusting for maternal CD4 cells/ mm3 (adjusted HR=4.3, CI=1.4–13), CD4% (HR=3.2, CI=1.0–10), HIV-1 viral load (HR=4.1, CI=1.4–12) or maternal death (HR=3.7, CI=1.0–13).
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya